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Metalworking and the manufacture of electronic equipment, motor-vehicle parts, and machinery are important industries. The city suffered severe damage in World War II , but most of its historic buildings have been rebuilt or restored, including St.
The house of the Teutonic Knights Deutsches Haus is in ruins. Several old towers survive, including the Diebsturm, or Götzenturm, on the Neckar.
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In Heilbronn was occupied by imperial troops but the same year the Swedes succeeded in conquering the city. From through , Heilbronn was again part of the Holy Roman Empire, but then French troops moved in and later those of the Electorate of the Palatinate.
The city was not free of occupying forces until four years after the Peace of Westphalia of But already in the s the city again became the stage for armed manoeuvres, until it was occupied by French troops in But while that occupation of the city only lasted several months, the French were only persuaded to leave the surrounding areas in , after a large defensive army had been put into the field and fortifications had been erected.
During the 18th century, archives suggest all members of the city council enjoyed some sort of formal education; Schiller and Goethe came to visit; and elaborate buildings were being constructed in the Rococo style.
The duke had conceded the left bank of the Rhine to France during the French Revolutionary Wars but had been compensated with areas on the right bank.
Heilbronn became the seat of an Oberamt district , and the four Imperial Free villages became separate communities within the district.
In the Duchy of Württemberg became the Kingdom of Württemberg. In , Heilbronn again became a staging area for major armies ahead of the campaign against Napoleon , and 10, troops paraded in front of Emperor Franz of Austria and more than one hundred German princes and generals in the Theresienwiese.
Industrialization arrived in When the first train lines were placed in service in Württemberg, Heilbronn was at the end of the line of the northern branch that connected Heilbronn with Stuttgart and further fueled industrialization.
For a while Heilbronn suffered from the upheavals of the Baden Revolution that its civil guard participated in.
During that time the 8th infantry regiment switched sides and joined the revolutionaries until it was subsequently disarmed and force-transferred out of the area.
In , the Hoerner Bank , one of the oldest still functioning banks in Germany , was founded in Heilbronn. Heilbronn became part of the German Empire in during the unification of Germany.
In the s the city's train tracks were extended to Heidelberg via Bad Wimpfen , to Würzburg via Osterburken , and to Crailsheim and later on to Nuremberg via Schwäbisch Hall.
In , the Kraichgau line was completed and created an important connection towards Karlsruhe , and by the end of the 19th century, Heilbronn had become an important hub, second in Wuerttemburg to Stuttgart in industrial output.
The year brought a connection to the power plant in Lauffen; thus Heilbronn became the first city in the world to enjoy long-distance electric power.
After almost a century of economic boom and growth of the local industry Heilbronn's citizenry included many labourers. The city came to be known as a "red hot spot" ; numerous worker and sports clubs were begun.
At his visit to the city on May 15, , Hitler was clearly not welcome by everyone, and several people were injured when a man was mistaken for Hitler and attacked.
He was also elected to the Reichstag from on and pushed hard for the Gleichschaltung of the Heilbronn clubs and press in Nazi Germany.
On July 28, , the port was opened in a canal off the Neckar, and saw the Autobahn between Heilbronn and Stuttgart completed.
Economy and infrastructure were booming in Württemberg, and Heilbronn was at the logistic centre of it all. As the result of a district reform on October 1, , Heilbronn became the seat of the newly created Heilbronn County and regained independent city status.
At the same time the previously independent communities of Böckingen, Sontheim, and Neckargartach were annexed, and with 72, residents Heilbronn then was the second largest city in Württemberg.
The port turned into an important transfer station on the Neckar and one of the ten largest interior ports in the country.
On November 10, , the Heilbronn synagogue was destroyed during the Kristallnacht. Soon thereafter the Jewish community was all but eliminated.
Similarly, important producers of the war industry were moved into the mine shafts. The expansion of the shafts was undertaken by labour brigades of the concentration camp branches in Kochendorf and Neckargartach.
From Heilbronn all the way to Neckarelz numerous subterraneous complexes, some of them gigantic, were constructed ; on November 20, , the Heilbronn Bureau of Labour had 8, forced labourers registered in its district.
In allied air raids began, and the city and its surrounding area were hit about 20 times with minor damage. On September 10, , a raid by the allies targeted the city specifically, in particular the Böckingen train transfer station.
As a result of 1, bombs dropped that day, residents died. The city was carpet-bombed from the southern quarter all the way to the Kilianskirche in the center of town.
The church was burnt out. After a ten-day battle , with the allies advancing over the strategically important Neckar crossings, the war ended for the destroyed city, and it was occupied by the U.
Army on April 12, He was eventually arrested, tried, and hanged by the Allies in Landsberg on December 4, After the war, Emil Beutinger, mayor until , returned to office and began the formidable task of reconstruction that was subsequently continued by his successors Paul Metz and Paul Meyle.
Milestones were the rededication of historic city hall in and the reopening of the community centre, Harmonie. Heilbronn was part of Württemberg-Baden until , after which it became part of Baden-Württemberg.
After , US troops were permanently stationed in Heilbronn. They used barracks built prior to World War II and added some structures of their own.
The opening of the Autobahn A 6 from Heilbronn to Mannheim in was an important economic event. When the A 81 to Würzburg and the A 6 to Nuremberg was completed in and , respectively, Heilbronn became an important logistical centre in southern Germany.
As a result, many large companies opened offices in Heilbronn. During the last district reform in the s, Kirchhausen, Biberach, Frankenbach and Horkheim were incorporated into Heilbronn, and the city was reconfirmed as independent city and seat of Heilbronn County.
It was also declared seat of the newly formed Franken region, now Heilbronn-Franken. Also during the s, the centre of the city was transformed into a pedestrian zone and the rededication of the city theatre in closed one of the largest holes left in the inner city from World War II.
This made Heilbronn the only major city in Germany with atomic missiles inside its city limits — a fact that became front-page news during the missile accident on January 11, After the INF Treaty was signed in , the missiles were removed.
In , Heilbronn was connected to the S-Bahn net with Karlsruhe. This further transformed the city centre, and an extension of the S-Bahn towards Öhringen opened on December 10, , marking the completion of the east—west axis of the Baden-Wuerttemburg regional transportation system.
The north—south axis was in the planning stages as of February Late in , Heilbronn was chosen to host the Bundesgartenschau in Ever since the Franks under Chlodwig settled in the Neckar region around the area has been predominantly Christian and when Heilbronn was first mentioned in an official document in Christian Michaelsbasilica, present day's Kilianskirche , was mentioned along with the city.
The Teutonic Knights constructed its church from the 13th century and both churches were continually expanded. They were joined later by other churches and cloisters in the city.
In , Jews were killed during the Rintfleisch-Pogrom and in Jews suffered attacks again during a European epidemic of the Bubonic plague.
The city's constitution required the council to include Jews, but already in the middle of the 15th century Jews were the target of vigilantes again until they were evicted from the city in with the blessings of Emperor Frederick III.
It is worth noting that the common Jewish name Halpern, and many variants such as Alpert, derive from the name of this city Heilbronn, and the early Jewish community there.
While Heilbronn was part of the Diocese of Würzburg , the independent villages of Böckingen, Neckargartach and Frankenbach were attached to the Diocese of Worms.
From on the Heilbronn native Johann Lachmann was caretaker of the parish in St. Kilian, in he became its preacher, in he converted to Lutheranism and proceeded to teach and lead the Reformation in Heilbronn against the wishes of both dioceses.
After the Protestant reformation of Heilbronn was complete the city remained Lutheran for centuries and the council and citizens accepted the Augsburg Confession without dissent.
Catholics were no longer welcome, Jews were prohibited from settling in Heilbronn, and the city took part in the Protestation at Speyer on April 19, the Protestation was the origin of the terms Protestant and Protestantism.
The Age of Enlightenment brought Heilbronn freedom of religion. From Jews were again permitted to settle in the city, Catholics also began to move back in and by the s Jews were granted equal rights as Heilbronn citizens.
After the city became part of Württemberg in it also became seat of a deaconry and the Prelate or regional bishop of the Protestant State Church in Württemberg.
To this day Protestants are in the majority in Heilbronn. Their small community suffered from oppression during the Third Reich and many of its members died in concentration camps.
Similarly, the Jewish community had to watch as its colossal synagogue went up in flames and its members were subsequently all but extinguished.
Jehovah's Witnesses built a first meeting room in Heilbronn in and many more have been added since then. Since the s, after guest workers and immigrants from Islamic or Russian-Orthodox countries settled here, these faiths are practiced by a growing part of the population and numerous mosques have been created since the s in the city and county of Heilbronn.
The farms are provincial heritage sites. The Mother and Child Memorial commemorates the Boer women and children who died between in the British concentration camp at Heilbron during the Anglo-Boer War.
The large cemetery serves as a stark reminder of the tragedy. On 16 October about 6 Matebele warriors attacked the laager of the Voortrekkers at Vechtkop.
A battle ensued and Matebele and two Voortrekkers were killed. The Riemland Museum is housed in an old Jewish synagogue, which in itself tells the story of the Jewish influence on the history of the town.
The museum tells the rich history of the early hunters in the Riemland, as well as the early pioneers and settlers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the city in Germany, see Heilbronn. For people with this surname, see Heilbron surname. This article needs additional citations for verification.
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District seat: Sasolburg. Kroonstad Steynsrus Vierfontein Viljoenskroon. Edenville Heilbron Koppies Parys Vredefort.
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